The male and the female have the same characteristics but the male has larger size than the female. The length is approximately 140 centimeters. The mouth is long and flat. There is a light purple water sac under the neck. The upper part of the mouth edge has dark blue spots placing in a row. Its leg is short with brown color and has tissues sticking its four fingers together which use for swimming. While flying, it will shrink its neck and lay its head on the shoulder. Feathers on the body are light grey and the area above the eye is white.
In Thailand, it can be found in the large water source area, and the seaside of the Central and the South. Besides, it can be found in Indopacific, India, Myanmar, Indochina, and Java. HABITAT AND ECOLOGY It inhabits a variety of deep and shallow wetlands, both man-made and natural, freshwater and saline, open and forested. It breeds colonially in Acacia bushes (S. Subramanya in litt. 2016, H. Taher in litt. 2016), tall trees or palms and feeds in open water, primarily on fish. Some populations appear to be sedentary. With the provision of nesting towers, the species does appear to make use of these for breeding (H. Taher in litt. 2016).
The food is fish, and the amphibian which lives in the large water source area.
Lives together in a troop both during seeking for the food and building the nest. While seeking for the food, it will use the sac under its neck as the net to scoop the fish into its neck.The Pelican builds the nest together as a troop on the tree. It lays 1 to 5 eggs each time and the incubation period is approximately 30 days. Both male and female will take turn to do such duty.
Conservation Actions Underway In India, several key breeding colonies are in protected areas and some local communities have pelican conservation initiatives. In Cambodia, the breeding colonies at Prek Toal and Moat Khla/Boeng Chhma are core areas of Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve. Conservation actions to reduce chick and egg collection and other forms of disturbance to the breeding colony at Prek Toal have been in place since the late 1990s. Eight out of 15 nesting sites in Tamil Nadu are protected. An awareness programme has been initiated in Sri Lanka as part of a project funded by the Conservation Leadership Programme. This has also set up research stations concerned with improving knowledge of the species (Weerakoon and Athukorala 2007). The provision of nesting towers has led to the founding of a new breeding site in the Kolleru area (H. Taher in litt. 2016). Conservation Actions Proposed Identify and survey colonies in Cambodia and any remaining in Myanmar and Thailand. Afford strict protection to important nesting colonies and key feeding-sites. Promote strict control of pesticide use in important feeding areas. Continue and strengthen on-going conservation actions at the Prek Toal colony, Tonle Sap lake. Draft and enforce new legislation pertaining to large waterbird colony conservation around Tonle Sap lake. Expand conservation awareness programmes at key sites. Monitor the population for signs of avian influenza. Investigate post-breeding dispersal, potentially using satellite tagging (S. Subramanya in litt. 2016).
CLASS : Aves
ORDER : Pelecaniformes
FAMILY : Pelecanidae
GENUS : Pelecanus
SPECIES : Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis)
Conservation status : Near Threatened
The Pelican is the large sized water bird.
Update : 11 April 2017